Monday, 26 June 2017

What People Who Live to 100 Have in Common

A growing number of Americans are living to age 100. Nationwide, the centenarian population has grown 65.8 percent over the past three decades, from 32,194 people who were age 100 or older in 1980 to 53,364 centenarians in 2010, according to new Census Bureau data. In contrast, the total population has increased 36.3 percent over the same time period.
Centenarians in the United States are considerably different from the overall population. Here's a look at some of the characteristics of people who live to age 100:

Female Gender

It is overwhelmingly women who live to age 100. In 2010, 82.8 percent of centenarians were female. For every 100 females age 100 or older, there are only 20.7 males the same age. Females also make up 61.9 percent of those in their 80s and 72.2 percent of people in their 90s. "We know that women are more social than men. Other studies have found that staying socially connected predicts greater life expectancy," says Gary Small, a professor on aging and director of the UCLA Longevity Center in Los Angeles, who is not affiliated with the Census Bureau report. "If you are social, it may reduce stress levels because you can talk about your feelings and things that stress you out and it seems to help many people. If you need a ride to the doctor or you fall, they can take you to the hospital or help you find the best doctor."

Less Diversity

Centenarians are considerably less diverse than the overall U.S. population. In 2010, some 82.5 percent of centenarians were white, versus 72.4 percent of the total population. Black or African Americans were unique in that their proportion of the centenarian population (12.2 percent) is about the same as their percentage of the total population (12.6 percent). Asians made up 2.5 percent of the centenarian population, while they make up 4.8 percent of the total population. And Hispanics represent 5.8 percent of centenarians, but 16.3 percent of the population.

Living with Others

Just over a third of both female and male centenarians lived alone in their own home in 2010, but the majority of the oldest citizens live with others. "As people get older, things in life happen—like you might become a widow or you might have a disability, and because of those circumstances, living arrangements often change," says Amy Symens Smith, chief of the age and special populations branch at the Census Bureau. Centenarian females (35.2 percent) were more likely to live in a nursing home than males the same age (18.2 percent). Centenarian males are the most likely to be living with others in a household (43.5 percent), compared to just 28.5 percent of centenarian females.

City Living

A large majority of the oldest U.S. citizens live in urban areas. "As age increases, the percentage living in urban areas also increases," says Smith. Some 85.7 percent of centenarians lived in urban areas in 2010, compared with 84.2 percent of those in their 90s, 81.5 percent of those in their 80s, and 76.6 percent of those in their 70s. "Living in the city, you have a lot more mental stimulation and the symphony and better doctors and hospitals and more social networking," says Small. "There are more resources, and there is better transportation."

Located in the Northeast or Midwest

States with the largest populations generally have the most centenarians. California has the largest number of centenarians (5,921), followed by New York (4,605), Florida (4,090), and Texas (2,917). Alaska has the fewest residents age 100 and older (40). Wyoming (72), Vermont (133), and Delaware (146) are also among the states with the fewest centenarians.
The Northeast and Midwest have proportions of centenarians that are higher than the national average of 1.73 per 10,000 people, while the West and South have below-average proportions of centenarians. "There's a lot of stuff going on in local areas, including access to medical care, diet, exercise, the culture, risk-taking, and more smoking," says Linda Waite, a sociology professor and director of the Center on Aging at the University of Chicago. "People in the Northeast tend to be more highly educated, and education is associated with a longer life expectancy." North Dakota is the only state with more than 3 centenarians for every 10,000 people in the state. Other states where centenarians make up a relatively large portion of the population include South Dakota, Iowa, and Nebraska. Three western states have less than one centenarian for every 10,000 people: Alaska, Utah, and Nevada.
The proportion of centenarians in the United States is smaller than that of many other developed countries. For example, for every 10,000 people, there are 1.92 centenarians in Sweden, 1.95 in the United Kingdom, and 2.70 in France. And Japan has 3.43 centenarians per 10,000 people, beating even our longest-lived state, North Dakota.

Trees Linked to Human Health

A recent study conducted by researchers associated the presence of trees with human health. For Geoffrey Donovan, a research forester at the Forest Service's Pacific Northwest Research Station, and his colleagues, the loss of 100 million trees in the eastern and Midwestern United States was an unprecedented opportunity to study the impact of a major change in the natural environment on human health.

In an analysis of 18 years of data from 1,296 counties in 15 states, researchers found that Americans living in areas infested by the emerald ash borer, a beetle that kills ash trees, suffered from an additional 15,000 deaths from cardiovascular disease and 6,000 more deaths from lower respiratory disease when compared to uninfected areas.

When emerald ash borer comes into a community, city streets lined with ash trees become treeless.

The researchers analyzed demographic, human mortality, and forest health data at the county level between 1990 and 2007. The data came from counties in states with at least one confirmed case of the emerald ash borer in 2010.

The findings hold true after accounting for the influence of demographic differences, like income, race, and education.

"There's a natural tendency to see our findings and conclude that, surely, the higher mortality rates are because of some confounding variable, like income or education, and not the loss of trees," Donovan said.

"But we saw the same pattern repeated over and over in counties with very different demographic makeups," he said.

Although the study shows the association between loss of trees and human mortality from cardiovascular and lower respiratory disease, it did not prove a causal link. The reason for the association is yet to be determined.

The emerald ash borer was first discovered near Detroit, Michigan, in 2002. The borer attacks all 22 species of North American ash and kills virtually all of the trees it infests.

The study has been published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

11 Anti-Aging Drinks

Aging is inevitable. Sadly. And there are many variables involved in how long you live. But you can also add years to your life by making smarter food choices. Keep your mind razor-sharp and body finely honed with these 11 anti-aging drinks.

1. Pink Grapefruit Juice for Smoother Skin 
Pink grapefruit gets its pink-red hue from lycopene, a carotenoid that'll keep your skin smooth according to a study published in the European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. Researchers found that of the 20 individuals studied, those who had higher skin concentrations of lycopene had smoother skin. 

2. Alcohol to Ward Off Alzheimer's Disease 
Drinking alcohol--moderately, which is one glass a day for women and two daily for men--may ward off dementia and Alzheimer's disease. As we age, brain cells die, leading to gaps that slow nerve transmission within the brain and between the brain and the rest of the body. Moderate drinking appears to somehow prevent these "potholes." (Scientists aren't sure why.) In high doses, however, alcohol kills brain cells, leading to brain damage that may manifest itself as permanent memory loss. 


3. Cocoa for a Healthier Heart 
The Kuna people of the San Blas islands, off the coast of Panama, have a rate of heart disease that is nine times less than that of mainland Panamanians. The reason? The Kuna drink plenty of a beverage made with generous proportions of cocoa, which is unusually rich in flavanols that help preserve the healthy function of blood vessels. Maintaining youthful blood vessels lowers risk of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, kidney disease and dementia.

4. Beet Juice to Beat Dementia 
Beets are rich in naturally occurring nitrates, which--unlike unhealthy artificial nitrates found in processed meat--may be beneficial. In a 2011 study in the journal Nitric Oxide, older adults who ate a nitrate-rich diet got a boost in blood flow to the frontal lobe of their brains--an area commonly associated with dementia. Poor blood flow contributes to age-related cognitive decline. Scientists think that the nitrates' nitric oxide, a compound that keeps blood vessels supple, helps increase brain blood flow. Cabbages and radishes also naturally contain nitrates.

5. Green Tea to Quell Inflammation 
Even if coffee is your beverage of choice, don't bag tea altogether--especially green tea. Green tea is full of potent antioxidants that help quell inflammation. (Chronic inflammation plays a significant role--as either a cause or effect--in many diseases, including type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases and the three top killers in the United States: heart disease, cancer and stroke.) In fact, researchers from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock recently found that green tea can inhibit oxidative stress and the potential inflammation that may result from it. "After 24 weeks, people who consumed 500 mg of green tea polyphenols daily--that's about 4 to 6 cups of tea--halved their oxidative stress levels," says Leslie Shen, Ph.D., the study's lead author. (The placebo group didn't see a single change.)

6. Soymilk for Firm Skin and Fewer Wrinkles 
The isoflavones in soymilk may help to preserve skin-firming collagen. In a study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, mice fed isoflavones and exposed to UV radiation had fewer wrinkles and smoother skin than mice that were exposed to UV light but didn't get isoflavones. The researchers think that isoflavones help prevent collagen breakdown.

7. Milk to Build Muscle Mass and Strength 
Studies show that we lose 1/2 to 1 percent of our lean muscle mass each year, starting as early as our thirties. Muscle strength also declines by 12 to 15 percent per decade. The amino acids in protein are the building blocks of muscle--and one amino acid, called leucine, is particularly good at turning on your body's muscle-building machinery. Once that muscle-building switch is flipped--you need to do this at each meal--you're better able to take in the amino acids (of any type) from protein in your diet. Milk contains whey protein, which is an excellent source of leucine. Other dairy products, such as Greek yogurt, as well as lean meat, fish and soy, such as edamame and tofu, are also rich in this amino acid.

8. Carrot Juice for Memory 
Carrots contain luteolin, a flavonoid believed to reduce inflammation that can lead to cognitive decline. In a 2010 The Journal of Nutrition study, mice that ate a diet that included luteolin had better spatial memory (e.g., how quickly they found a platform in a water maze) and less inflammation than mice that didn't get any luteolin. Luteolin is found in bell peppers, celery, rosemary and thyme.

9. Coffee to Protect Against Skin Cancer 
Drinking a single cup of coffee daily may lower your risk of developing skin cancer. In one study of more than 93,000 women, published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention, those who drank 1 cup of caffeinated coffee a day reduced their risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer by about 10 percent. And the more they drank--up to about 6 cups or so per day--the lower their risk. Decaf didn't seem to offer the same protection. 


10. Water for Better Breath 
Water keeps your throat and lips moist and prevents your mouth from feeling dry. Dry mouth can cause bad breath and/or an unpleasant taste--and can even promote cavities. 


11. Orange Juice for Eye Health 
Studies show that people with low levels of antioxidants are more likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD) than those with higher levels. (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in people over age 60.) Vitamin C--which is abundant in orange juice--is one antioxidant that seems to be especially protective against the disease. (Other antioxidants include vitamin E, lutein and zeaxanthin.) While it's not completely clear how antioxidants protect your eyes, it seems that they accumulate in the retina where they can mop up free radicals, compounds that damage cells by starving them of oxygen.

Sugar heals wounds faster than antibiotics

Pouring granulated sugar on wounds can help in healing faster than antibiotics, a new study has found.

New research shows folk medicine from Africa may hold the key to treating wounds that defy modern medicine. 

According to the study, sugar draws water from the wound into a dressing accelerating the healing process, the Daily Mail reported.

The study is headed by Moses Murandu, a senior lecturer in adult nursing at Wolverhampton University, who grew up in Zimbabwe where his father used sugar to heal wounds and reduce pain when he was a child.

Sugar draws water from the wound into a dressing - bacteria needs water to survive - which allows accelerates the healing process, or kick starts it where progress has stalled.

When Murandu moved to the UK he realised that sugar was not recognised as a traditional medicine that had something to offer.

One of the patients receiving treatment as part of the research is Alan Bayliss, from Birmingham, who was being treated at Moseley Hall Hospital`s amputee rehabilitation ward.

He underwent an above the knee amputation on his right leg due to an ulcer at the Queen Elizabeth (QE) Hospital Birmingham in January 2013, and as part of the surgery a vein was removed from his left leg.

For his post-surgery rehabilitation, Bayliss was moved to Moseley Hall Hospital where standard dressings were used but the left leg cavity wound was not healing effectively.

Nurses contacted Murandu and Bayliss was given the sugar treatment and within two weeks the wound had drastically reduced in size.

So far 35 patients receiving treatment have seen their condition improve, with no adverse effects reported.

Worth of Australia's Great Barrier Reef valued at US $42 billion, study says 'it's too big to fail'

The study, based on six months' analysis, comes as the reef suffers an unprecedented second straight year of coral bleaching due to warming sea temperatures linked to climate change with the problems compounded this year by a powerful cyclone pummelling the area. 

Australia's Great Barrier Reef is a 25-million-year-old ecosystem which stretches for over 1,400 miles long with up to 2,900 individual reefs and 1,050 islands.
Environment authorities in Australia, have been monitoring the Great Barrier Reef ever since the impact of climate change on the corals first came to the forefront.
In the past year, the world has seen the reef's coral treasure die due to bleaching and resurrect, however, it is still under pressure from climate change, along with farming run-off, development and the crown-of-thorns starfish.
However, a new study has stated that the Great Barrier Reef is is an asset worth Aus$56 billion (US$42 billion) and is 'too big to fail'.
The World Heritage-listed reef is the largest living structure on Earth and its economic and social value was calculated for the first time in the Deloitte Access Economics report commissioned by the Great Barrier Reef Foundation.
Using economic modelling, it said the reef – bigger than Britain, Switzerland and the Netherlands combined – was worth Aus$29 billion to tourism, supporting 64,000 jobs.
The "indirect or non-use" value – people that have not yet visited the reef but know it exists – was estimated at Aus$24 billion, with recreational users such as boaters making up the rest.
The study, based on six months' analysis, comes as the reef suffers an unprecedented second straight year of coral bleaching due to warming sea temperatures linked to climate change with the problems compounded this year by a powerful cyclone pummelling the area.
Great Barrier Reef Foundation director Steve Sargent said the study showed that no single Australian asset contributed as much to international perceptions of "Brand Australia".
"At $56 billion, the reef is valued at more than 12 Sydney Opera Houses," he said.
"This report sends a clear message that the Great Barrier Reef – as an ecosystem, as an economic driver, as a global treasure – is too big to fail."
Commenting in the report, US presidential candidate turned conservationist Al Gore said the study was a "much needed, holistic view of the incredible economic value and opportunities provided by the Great Barrier Reef".
"Any failure to protect this indispensable natural resource would have profound impacts not only to Australia but around the world," he added.
The study included a survey of 1,500 Australian and international respondents from 10 countries that found people value the reef for a range of reasons – due to its importance for tourism but also the belief that Australia would not be the same without it.
Lead author, Deloitte Access's John O'Mahony, said it was clear the reef was "priceless and irreplaceable".
"But we've been able to look at it as an 'asset' that has incredible value on multiple fronts – from its biodiversity and job creating potential to its support for critical industries and standing among international visitors to Australia," he said.
Australia last month hosted a summit of more than 70 of the world's leading marine experts to work on a blueprint on how best to respond to the threats facing the reef.
Options explored included developing coral nurseries, strategies to boost culling of crown-of-thorns starfish, expanding monitoring systems and identifying priority sites for coral restoration.
Key to the talks was the need to slash greenhouse gas emissions to prevent warming sea temperatures.
Canberra in 2015 narrowly avoided UNESCO putting the reef on its endangered list, and has committed more than Aus$2.0 billion to protect it over the next decade.
But it has been criticised for backing a huge US$16 billion coal project by Indian mining giant Adani near the reef, which environmentalists warn would harm the natural wonder.
Environment Minister Josh Frydenberg insisted protecting the reef was a priority.
"It is critical for reefs worldwide, including the Great Barrier Reef, that international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are effective," he said in response to the study.
"Australia is taking strong action to address the global threat of climate change having ratified the Paris Agreement which will see Australia reduce its emissions by 26 to 28 percent on 2005."

George W. Bush, the Artist

A gallery of paintings by our 43rd President.















Frightening Facebook Live video shows just what happens when you overdose on heroin — “Do you have a pulse?”

Warning: this story contains video you might find disturbing. 

A Facebook Live video from Dorchester shows a couple in a car shooting up and the life and death struggle that follows.


Posted on Wednesday just before 5:30 p.m. in Dorchester, a man walks up to confront a couple about using drugs in his neighborhood.

A needle is visible, lying in the woman’s lap.



The woman wakes up as the resident confronts her, but the man in the passenger seat does not.
The couple in the video carry their own Narcan, according to the woman, and she retrieves it from the trunk. She then starts doing CPR.
The man who confronted them keeps filming and tries to help.
“Do you have a pulse?…The police are coming,” he can be heard saying.
The woman asks the man how long they had been sitting in the car.
“Ya’ll had been sitting here for a while and we could tell what ya’ll were up to,” he responded.
The woman, still performing CPR, thanks him.
A Boston Police officer arrives and shortly after the man begins to move, and then vomits.
“I’m glad you came back, man,” said the man filming the Facebook live.
The video has been shared more than 20,000 times and has more than 2 million views, capturing people’s attentions from around the country.
While it might be shocking to see, EMTS said these scenes are an every day occurrence.
“I’ll say almost once a shift now we’re doing overdoses,” said Debra Johnson with Brewster Ambulance.
In Boston so far this year, EMTs have responded to more than 1,300 overdose calls, which is on par with 2016. That’s about 7.5 calls a day.

The number of fatalities, however, has double from last year.
“A lot of the people that we find deceased that we refer to the Medical Examiner are somebody who maybe used alone,” said Chief Jim Hooley, a Boston EMT.